Current government officials. Population est. Capital est.


Religions: Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority. Real growth rate: 3. Arable land: 6. Agriculture: cotton, groundnuts peanutssorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava tapiocamangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock. Labor force: Natural resources: petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower.

Communications: Telephones: main lines in use:; mobile cellular: Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 Radios: 7. Television broadcast stations: 3 Televisions: 2. Internet users: 4. Transportation: Railways: total: 5, km Highways: total: 11, km; paved: 4, km; unpaved: 7, km est.

Waterways: 4, km navigable Ports and harbors: Port Sudan. Airports: 74 Major sources and definitions.


Sudan, in northeast Africa, measures about one-fourth the size of the United States. The Red Sea washes about mi of the eastern coast. It is traversed from north to south by the Nile, all of whose great tributaries are partly or entirely within its borders.

What is now northern Sudan was in ancient times the kingdom of Nubia, which came under Egyptian rule after B. An Egyptian and Nubian civilization called Kush flourished until A. Missionaries converted the region to Christianity in the 6th century, but an influx of Muslim Arabs, who had already conquered Egypt, eventually controlled the area and replaced Christianity with Islam.

During the s a people called the Funj conquered much of Sudan, and several other black African groups settled in the south, including the Dinka, Shilluk, Nuer, and Azande. Egyptians again conquered Sudan inand after Britain occupied Egypt init took over Sudan inruling the country in conjunction with Egypt.Civilian and military leaders are jostling for power as the capital, Khartoum, begins a three-week lockdown on Saturday.

The bombing of the Navy destroyer in Yemen in killed 17 sailors. Al Qaeda claimed responsibility, and Sudan was accused of having aided the terrorist group. The visa rules will affect nearly a quarter of the people on the African continent, including many hoping to join loved ones already in the U. Images show the lions, held in cages in Khartoum, with their bones protruding from their skin.

The ruling came just weeks after Omar al-Bashir, the ousted president, was convicted of money laundering and corruption. Across much of the Islamic world, many Muslims are disillusioned with the ugly things done in the name of their religion.

Aboutpeople were killed in the conflict and some 2. Omar Hassan al-Bashir, accused of genocide in Darfur, was charged with possessing foreign currency and receiving illegal gifts.

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By Declan Walsh. By Abdi Latif Dahir. By Zolan Kanno-Youngs.

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By Mustafa Akyol. Show More.Sudancountry located in northeastern Africa.


For more than a century, Sudan—first as a colonial holding, then as an independent country—included its neighbour South Sudanhome to many sub-Saharan African ethnic groups. Since ancient times the Sudan region has been an arena for interaction between the cultural traditions of Africa and those of the Mediterranean world. Islam and the Arabic language achieved ascendancy in many northern parts of the region, while older African languages and cultures predominated in the south.

The country became independent in and has had numerous changes in government since then. Successive regimes found it difficult to win general acceptance from the diverse political constituencies. An early conflict arose between those northern leaders who hoped to impose unity upon the nation through the vigorous extension of Islamic law and culture to all parts of the country and those who opposed this policy; the latter included the majority of southerners and those northerners who favoured a secular government.

From until there prevailed a costly and divisive civil war, fought largely in the south but punctuated by violent incidents in the north. The Addis Ababa Agreement of ended the conflict only temporarily, and in the civil war resumed.

Attempts to end the civil war included numerous discussions, cease-fires, and agreements but yielded very little success untilwhen the Comprehensive Peace Agreement ended the warfare. It also granted southern Sudan semiautonomous status and stipulated that a referendum on independence for the south would be held in six years.

The results of the vote, held in Januarywere overwhelmingly in favour of independence, and South Sudan was declared an independent country on July 9, It is part of the largest urban area in Sudan and is a centre of commerce as well as of government. Sudan is mainly composed of vast plains and plateaus that are drained by the Nile River and its tributaries. This river system runs from south to north across the entire length of the east-central part of the country.

This plain can be divided into a northern area of rock desert that is part of the Sahara ; the western Qawz, an area of undulating sand dunes that merges northward into the rock desert; and a central-southern clay plain.

Most of northern Sudan is a sand- or gravel-covered desert, diversified by flat-topped mesas of Nubian sandstone and islandlike steep-sided granite hills. The western plain is composed primarily of Nubian sandstones, which form a dissected plateau region with flat-topped mesas and buttes. The volcanic highlands of the Marrah Mountains rise out of the Darfur Plateau farther west to elevations between approximately 3, and 10, feet and 3, metres above sea level.

These mountains form the Nile-Congo watershed and the western boundary of the clay plain. In northeastern Sudan the Red Sea Hills region is an uplifted escarpment. The scarp slope facing the Red Sea forms rugged hills that are deeply incised by streams.

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The escarpment overlooks a narrow coastal plain that is 10 to 25 miles 16 to 40 km wide and festooned with dunes and coral reefs.

Farther south the eastern uplands constitute the foothills of the Ethiopian highland massif. The Nile River system is the dominant physical feature, and all streams and rivers of Sudan drain either into or toward the Nile. The surface of the deserts in the north and northeast are either bare rock, a mantle of bare waste, or sandy expanses of mobile dunes known as ergs. In the semiarid zone of north-central Sudan, the layer of rock waste is slightly modified to form immature soils; in the Qawz region, soils are brownish red and of low fertility.

The alkaline soils of the south-central plain are heavy cracking clays. In northernmost Sudan, northerly winds prevail for most of the year, and rainfall is rare. To the south of this the seasons are characterized by the north-south oscillation of the boundary between moist southerly air and dry northerly air. In winter the north winds of the tropical air mass blow across Sudan. These winds are relatively cool and dry and usually bring no rain. Sometime around May, the moist southerly air of the southern maritime air mass moves northward across the country.

Because of this, central and southern Sudan have rainy seasons, the total lengths of which vary according to their latitude. Sudan is a hot country. The central and eastern areas have the highest mean annual temperatures, typically ranging from the mids to mids F mids to low 40s C. In the west and northwest of the country, the highest mean temperatures generally range from the mids to mids F low to mids C. The highest temperatures normally occur just before the rainy season.Coronavirus pandemic.

Khartoum has been paced under a three-week lockdown as health ministry reports 30 new coronavirus cases in a day. Sudan 10 Apr GMT. One year since the overthrow of al-Bashir, Sudan authorities yet to prosecute perpetrators of deadly violence, HRW says. Sudan 07 Apr GMT.

Deal seen as latest move by Sudan's government to remove the country from a US list of state sponsors of 'terrorism'. Sudan's government is fighting to contain the spread of the coronavirus after at least 14 people tested positive and two others died. With no treatment or vaccine for coronavirus, volunteers say they will continue to provide the services they can to fight the disease.


Africa 25 Mar GMT. General Gamal al-Din Omar was in Juba for peace talks between his country's transitional government and rebel groups. Opinion 19 Mar GMT.

Sudan country profile

Sudan and Sudanese people left a deep imprint on Malcolm X and his activism. Coronavirus pandemic 18 Mar GMT. The government is preparing isolation centres near the border with Egypt where more than cases have been reported. Opinion 16 Mar GMT. Kushner and Netanyahu's 'with us or against the US' campaign breeds anti-Americanism and anti-Semitism.

Coronavirus pandemic 13 Mar GMT.

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Africa was largely spared the rapid spread of COVID, which has infected thousands and killed nearly 5, so far. Sudan 11 Mar GMT. The shortages sparked last year's revolution which ended President Omar al-Bashir's year rule. Attack against Abdallah Hamdok in Khartoum underlines fragility of transition to civilian rule, analysts say. Africa 09 Mar GMT. State television says prime minister is safe after blast in the capital, Khartoum.

Sudan 06 Mar GMT. Killings by security forces followed a protest movement that led to the stepping down of President Omar al-Bashir. Humanitarian crises 27 Feb GMT. Parts of the arid belt of land below the Sahara have been engulfed by swiftly deteriorating violence.

Ethiopia 26 Feb GMT. Ethiopian government says it will not attend this week's talks as its delegation has not completed consultations.

Toggle navigation.Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from Anglo-Egyptian co-rule in Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese.

The first civil war ended in but another broke out in Peace talks gained momentum in with the signing of several accords.

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The referendum was held in January and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July Sudan and South Sudan have yet to fully implement security and economic agreements signed in September relating to the normalization of relations between the two countries. The final disposition of the contested Abyei region has also to be decided. Following South Sudan's independence, conflict broke out between the government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states together known as the Two Areasresulting in a humanitarian crisis affecting more than a million people.

A earlier conflict that broke out in the western region of Darfur indisplaced nearly 2 million people and caused thousands of deaths. While some repatriation has taken place, about 1. Fighting in both the Two Areas and Darfur between government forces and opposition has largely subsided, however the civilian populations are affected by low-level violence including inter-tribal conflict and banditry, largely a result of weak rule of law.

Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and denial of access by both the government and armed opposition have impeded the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations. However, Sudan's new transitional government has stated its priority to allow greater humanitarian access, as the food security and humanitarian situation in Sudan worsens and as it appeals to the West for greater engagement.

Council of State - last held 1 June National Assembly - last held on April note - elections for an as yet defined new legislature to be held in at the expiry of the Transnational Legislative Council. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan's GDP growth since For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of rising oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment.

Since the economic shock of South Sudan's secession, Sudan has struggled to stabilize its economy and make up for the loss of foreign exchange earnings. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture, keep close to half of the population at or below the poverty line.

Sudan was subject to comprehensive US sanctions, which were lifted in October Sudan is attempting to develop non-oil sources of revenues, such as gold mining and agriculture, while carrying out an austerity program to reduce expenditures. Sudan introduced a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan's secession, but the value of the currency has fallen since its introduction.

Khartoum formally devalued the currency in Junewhen it passed austerity measures that included gradually repealing fuel subsidies. We read every letter or e-mail we receive, and we will convey your comments to CIA officials outside OPA as appropriate.With the recent military coup on 11 Aprilthe security situation is a fluid one. The British Foreign and Commonwealth Office still advise against all travel to much of western and southern Sudan, with all but essential travel to areas within km of Egypt west of the Nile Valley.

Click here for more information. Wake at the break of day under the golden pyramids of godlike kings of old, traverse a searing desert to the place where two Niles become one, and watch a million blood-red fish swarm through gardens of coral.

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Whichever way you look at it, there's just no denying that among Sudan's sweeping hills of sand lie treasures the rest of the world are only just beginning to discover. For the few travellers who venture here, Sudan comes as a fantastic surprise. Visitors invariably agree that the Sudanese are among the friendliest and most hospitable people on earth.

And although various ongoing conflicts mean part of this vast nation remains off limits, the northeast is one of the safest places in the world. Whether you rush through on a Cairo-to—Cape Town trip, or spend a slow month soaking up the history and hospitality, visiting Sudan is a memorable experience.

Outdoor Activities. Matobo National Park is an incredible part of Zimbabwe. We are now Private tour to Shalateen from Marsa Alam, Experience all aspects of Find out what this means for travelers. Soleb Wawa Historic Site. National Museum Khartoum Museum. Khatmiyah Mosque Kassala Mosque. Sai Island Abri Historic Site. Kerma Museum Kerma Museum. Western Deffufa Kerma Archaeological Site.

Sudan News

Jebel Barkal Karima Archaeological Site. Naqa Sudan Archaeological Site. Sudan Naqa. Day tours. Slide 1 of 7. Explore all. Multi-day adventures. Slide 1 of 8. Exploring Sudan: a desert journey in pictures. Read more articles. Walking Safari in Hwange national park Enjoy a 2days 1night at hwange national park, this comes See more activities.The Sudan is the geographic region to the south of the Saharastretching from Western to eastern Central Africa.

Historically, the name was understood to denote the western part of the Sahel region. It thus roughly encompassed the geographical belt between the Sahara and the coastal West Africa. In modern usage, the phrase "The Sudan" is also used in a separate context to refer specifically to the present-day country of Sudanthe western part of which forms part of the larger region, and from which South Sudan gained its independence in The Sudan region is marked by hayforest cliffs and gallery forests along the rivers.

Drought and livestock grazing threaten the area with desertification. The area is predominantly a plateau with river valleys of the NigerChad and White Nile. The Sudan is a transition zone between the Sahelian dry desert climate and the dense humid equatorial rainforest. Average annual temperatures vary between 23 and 29 degrees.

Temperatures in the coldest months are above 20 degrees Celsius and over 30 degrees Celsius in the hottest months. Daily temperature fluctuations are up to degrees. The summer monsoon brings rain from the equator.

Sudan (region)

Precipitation ranges from mm in the north to 1, mm in the south. During the dry winter season, the hot and dry Harmattan northeasterly wind from the Sahara. It stretches from the border of Senegalthrough southern Mali formerly known as French Sudan when it was a French colonyBurkina Fasosouthern Nigernorthern Nigerianorthern Ghanasouthern Chadthe western Darfur region of present-day Sudanand South Sudan.

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In the southwest lies the West Sudanian Savannaa wetter, tropical savanna region bordering the tropical forests of West Africa.

In the center is Lake Chadand the more fertile region around the lake, while to the south of there are the highlands of Cameroon. To the southeast is the East Sudanian Savannaanother tropical savanna region, bordering the forest of Central Africa.

This gives way further east to the Suddan area of tropical wetland fed by the water of the White Nile. According to some modern historians, of all the regions of Africa, the western Sudan "is the one that has seen the longest development of agriculture, of markets and long-distance trade, and of complex political systems.