The first traces of this hominid to come to light were some teeth discovered inby a schoolboy, Gert Terblanche, at Kromdraai, a breccia -filled cave northwest of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa see map below right.
He showed his finds to paleontologist Robert Broom of the Transvaal Museum, who promptly investigated the site. The same year he described and named Paranthropus robustus Over the next decade, Broom further excavated the Kromdraai site, and adjacent ones at Swartkrans and Sterkfontein caves, turning up much additional material now attributed to this hominid.
Specimens recovered to date range from 1. Broom chose the name robustus in reference to the stout chewing apparatus of this creature — a sturdy jaw and teeth, together with a prominent sagittal crest atop the skull providing a large anchoring area for big jaw muscles. Brain size in P. Paranthropus robustus was the first of the robust Paranthropus australopithecines to be found the other two robust australopithecines are Paranthropus aethiopicus and Paranthropus boisei.
4.5: Paranthropus robustus
The Kromdraai fossils included teeth and portions of a skull that dated to 2. The remains of at least individuals have been found at Swartkrans. Dated to 2. Although the robust australopithecines had larger brains than their gracile counterparts, most experts think early members of the genus Homo were the actual toolmakers.
Etymology: The Greek suffix -anthropus was added to the Greek prefix par- to construct paranthropusmeaning "near man"; the Latin word robustus means "strong" or "powerful". Paranthropus robustus Online Biology Dictionary. Site Search. Site Tour. But please contact us with any suggested corrections. Location of Gauteng Credit: Htonl. Location of South Africa Credit: Vardion. Perhaps we are not from the apes alone?
Facts about Paranthropus robustus Habitat: Open woodland. Synonym: Australopithecus robustus. Most shared on Macroevolution.Paranthropus robustus is a species of australopithecine from the Early and possibly Middle Pleistocene of the Cradle of HumankindSouth Africa, about 2 to 1 or 0.
Discovered init was among the first early hominins described and the first discovered robust australopithecine, and became the type species for the genus Paranthropus. However, it is argued that Paranthropus is an invalid grouping and synonymous with Australopithecusso the species is also often classified as Australopithecus robustus.
Robust australopithecines are characterised by heavily built skulls capable of producing high stresses and bite forcesand some of the largest molars with the thickest enamel of any known ape.
The species is thought to have exhibited marked sexual dimorphismwith males substantially larger and more robust than females. The brain volume of the specimen SK is estimated to have been cc. In regard to plant foods, P. It is unclear if P. The first remains, a partial skull including a part of the jawbone TMwere discovered in June at KromdraaiSouth Africa, by local schoolboy Gert Terblanche. Broom noted the Kromdraai remains were especially robust compared to other hominins.
At this point in time, Australian anthropologist Raymond Dart had made the very first claim quite controversially at the time of an early ape-like human ancestor in from South Africa, Australopithecus africanusbased on the Taung child. InBroom had described " Plesianthropus transvaalensis " now synonymised with A.
Broom considered all these species, which dated to the Pleistocene and were found in the same general vicinity now called the " Cradle of Humankind "evidence of a greater diversity of hominins in the Pliocene out of which they and modern humans descended from, and that several hominin taxa existed alongside human ancestors.
In AugustBroom classified the robust Kromdraai remains into a new genus as Paranthropus robustus. They believed that the Swartkrans Paranthropus were reproductively isolated from Kromdraai Paranthropus and they eventually speciated. Patterson recommended limiting hominin genera to only Australopithecus and Homo. The genus Paranthropus otherwise known as "robust australopithecines" now also includes the East African P.
It is unclear if this is a valid natural grouping monophyletic or an invalid grouping of similar-looking hominins paraphyletic. Because skeletal elements are so limited in these species, their affinities with each other and to other australopithecines is difficult to gauge with accuracy.
The jaws are the main argument for monophyly, but such anatomy is strongly influenced by diet and environment, and could in all likelihood have evolved independently in P.
Proponents of monophyly consider P. Proponents of paraphyly allocate these three species to the genus Australopithecus as A. The P. Overall brain anatomy of P.Does The Sphinx Water Erosion Hypothesis Hold Water??
The posterior semicircular canals of modern humans are thought to aid in stabilisation while running. Typical of ParanthropusP. The premolars are shaped like molars. The skull had a well-defined sagittal crest on the midline and inflated cheek bones, which likely supported massive temporal muscles important in biting.
The cheeks project so far from the face that, when in top-view, the nose appears to sit at the bottom of a concavity a dished face. This displaced the eye sockets forward somewhat, causing a weak brow ridge and receding forehead. The inflated cheeks also would have pushed the masseter muscle important in biting down forward and pushed the tooth rows back, which would have created a higher bite force on the premolars.Paranthropus is an extinct bipedal hominid genus which lived approximately 2.
This genus is actually composed of 3 different hominid species which have helped scientists to link modern humans to our earlier human ancestors.
The three groups in this species include Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus boisei and Paranthropus robustus.
What are hominids? Hominids are formally known as the Great Apes and they comprise 4 different genera, which includes humans, gorillas, chimpanzees and orangutans. How the word hominid is used has changed over the years, but it is usually used to refer to human and their close ape ancestors. The first of these hominids to be found was Paranthropus robustus in when a jawbone fragment was found in a farm field in South Africa.
This jaw bone was then sent to Robert Broom. After he decided it was an altogether different species than Australopithecus africanus — a known hominid at the time — he then set out to search for more bones and teeth of this species. He collected more and learned that they were about 3 feet tall, weighed around pounds. They lived about 1. Paranthropus boisei was the next hominid species to be discovered. They lived about 2. Paranthropus aethiopicus was first discovered by French paleontologists in An interesting fact about this species of Paranthropus is that little is currently known about its size.
Quick Paranthropus Facts Lived from the Pliocene Period through the Pleistocene Period Lived in what is now Africa 3 different species made up this genus First species discovered in Tallest species of this genus was over 4 feet tall Weighed less than a kangaroo Paranthropus Pictures. Paranthropus by Eric Barnett. Paranthropus by Roman Yevseyev.Hugot lines tungkol sa mga bagay
Broom searched for the boy Gert Terblanche and found him at school. Broom found several more cranial and mandibular fragments associated with the original maxillary specimen, and this partial cranium TM became the type specimen for Australopithecus robustus.
Particularly regarding cranial features, the development of Paranthropus robustus seemed to be in the direction of a 'heavy-chewing complex'. On account of the definitive traits associated with this 'robust' line of australopithecine, anthropologist Robert Broom established the genus Paranthropus and placed this species in it.
Paranthropus robustus is generally dated to have lived between 2. It had large jaws and jaw muscles with the accompanying sagittal crest, and post-canine teeth that were adapted to serve in the dry environment they lived in. Not licensed for use on Facebook.Jose de jesus street race
Australopithecus robustustype specimen. Australopithecus robustus DNH 7, 'Eurydice'. DNH 7 is the most complete skull of Paranthropus robustus ever discovered, and a rare female specimen from the Drimolen Main Quarry.
Australopithecus robustus Photo: Giovanni Caselli. Dental microwear and texture analysis suggests this hominin ate hard foods such as roots, tubers and seeds. Swartkrans, South Africa, 1. This adult skull has been dated between 1. Most of the skull minus the lower jaw is preserved, including the right canine tooth, right first premolar and all three left molars.
Paranthropus robustus skull, female, excavated Photo: Mike Peel www. Hominin timeline. Note that Homo floresiensis has not been placed on this timeline. The development of P. Because of the definitive traits that are associated with this robust line of australopithecine, anthropologist Robert Broom erected the genus Paranthropus and placed this species into it.SK 48 is a semi-complete cranium with evidence of crushing during deposition, and other damage inflicted when the specimen was blasted from the Transvaal cave where it was original located.
Most of the SK 48's braincase is missing, particularly the posterior region. The left molars are present, as is the alveoli for the right incisors. The roots for the left second premolar are present as well. Because of its relatively small sagittal crest and small canines, SK 48 was original described as a female 1,2.
The post canine teeth are very large, including obvious molarization of the premolars. Large zygomatics are present, along with a flat face that is dish-shaped in lateral view 3,4. SK 48 exhibits a relatively anteriorly placed sagittal crest, a low rising frontal, postorbital constriction, a large face relative to the neurocranium, and a distinct frontal trigon 4. It has also been noted that the nuerocortical morphology of SK 48 and Paranthropus robustus as a species is more ape-like than Australopithecus africanus 3.
If you have any problems using this site or have any other questions, please feel free to contact us. Search this site:. Bone Viewer. Geologic Age: 2 Ma - 1. Broom R and Robinson JT. Swartkrans Ape-Man: Paranthropus crassidens.
Transvaal Museum: Pretoria. Memoir No. Johanson D and Edgar B.R raster lat lon
New York: Simon and Schuster. Klein RG. Third Edition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Schwartz JH and Tattersall I.Paranthropus robustus. He later found material at Kromdraai, and because the molar teeth were more primitive at that site, he changed the species name at Swartkrans to P.
Molar characteristics from the more recent material from the Drimolen site are thought to be intermediate between the Swartkrans and Kromdraai molars, and most researchers now consider the material from all three sites to be species: robustus. However, others believe that P. Of the former school, some believe that P. The two species would then have inherited their flexed skull base from Au. Like P. As mentioned in the introduction, Robert Broom discovered the first material at Swartkrans and subsequent specimens at the site of Kromdraai.
Andre Keyser discovered the jaw and dental material at Drimolen in Characteristics shared with Au. While P. Their anteriorly oriented orbits and zygomatics reduced the distance between their midface and jaws, making it appear so. The nasal bones were recessed relative to the forward-oriented zygomatics, so that they too had a somewhat dish-shaped midface like Au. They had less of a forehead than Au.
Finally, unlike Au. Average cranial capacity is estimated to have been cc, giving them the highest EQ, 3. The postcranial morphology of P. They thus are thought to have had a great degree of manual dexterity and were likely capable of making and certainly using tools.
However, they retained some primitive australopith characteristics, including long arms; small vertebral bodies, especially inferiorly; small sacroiliac and hip joints; more posteriorly oriented ilia; and a long femoral neck. Brain found wooden digging sticks in association with P. In addition, polish on bone and horn cores bone interior of animal horns attributed to P.
Of interest is recent research that indicates that they were more male- than female-philopatric, supporting the notion that we have inherited the chimp and bonobo pattern of females relocating to join and range with a group of males. Amazingly, isotopic analyses of strontium in their teeth indicates that females did not grow up where their fossils are found Copeland et al. Paranthropus robustus 2. Characteristics Review of Primitive Characteristics Retain prognathism, concave facial profile, long arms, small vertebral bodies, small sacroiliac joints, posteriorly-oriented ilia, and long femoral neck of Au.
Review of Derived Characteristics Same characteristics as P. Maximum bite force on premolars.Like other members of the Paranthropus genusP. A strong sagittal crest on the midline of the top of the skull anchored the temporalis muscles large chewing muscles from the top and side of the braincase to the lower jaw, and thus moved the massive jaw up and down. The force was focused on the large cheek teeth molars and premolars. Flaring cheekbones gave P.
This species had even larger cheek teeth than P. Cranial capacity in this species suggests a slight rise in brain size about cc in 1 million years independent of brain enlargement in the genus Homo. Paleoanthropologists actually found the first fossils belonging to P. Paleoanthropologists are constantly in the field, excavating new areas, using groundbreaking technology, and continually filling in some of the gaps about our understanding of human evolution.Warrior cats lemons peeing
Below are some of the still unanswered questions about P. Leakey, L. A new fossil from Olduvai. Nature Constantino, P. The evolution of Zinjanthropus boisei. Evolutionary Anthropology 16, 49— Ungar, P. Dental microwear and diet of the Plio- Pleistocene hominin Paranthropus boisei. PLoS One 3, e This species was nicknamed Nutcracker Man for its big teeth and strong chewing muscles, which attached to the large crest on the skull.Covid: 7 morti e 5 nuovi casi in puglia
Those features show that Paranthropus boisei likely ate tough foods like roots and nuts. But dental microwear patterns seen on P. While the morphology of P. This species lived in environments that were dominated by grasslands but also included more closed, wet habitats associated with rivers and lakes. The discovery of P.Accounting for cell phones
This discovery cleared up a long time controversy and confirmed that more than one species of early humans lived in the same geographical area at the same time.
More finds have confirmed that this species was one of the most prevalent in Eastern Africa during the time period when early members of the genus Homo were also present. This female Paranthropus boisei has a smaller skull without a large crest on the top like males of her speciesbut she has the characteristic wide cheekbones and marks along her skull from strong chewing muscles.
Notice the wide zygomatic arches which project forward of the nasal opening and form the dished-shape face typical of Paranthropus boisei. Species Paranthropus boisei. Slideshows Videos Audio. Your browser does not support the audio element. Paranthropus boisei.
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